Marine ecosystems are under increasing and competing demand for their services and products. Three billion people depend on protein found in the ocean. Seafood is a major contributor to global food security with aquaculture the fastest-growing animal producing sector in the world, providing in 2017 over half of the world’s fish for consumption.

Australian fisheries are among the best managed in the world. Management changes introduced by the Australian Government and the fishing industry since 2006 have achieved more sustainable fish stocks and improved profits in most Commonwealth fisheries. Australia’s research has provided the backbone for this transformation, from understanding fish biology, movements and ecosystems, to developing standard approaches for fisheries assessment and ecosystem-based management.